Common Name(s): maidenhair tree [English] common ginkgo [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted ... Ginkgo biloba : Source: NODC Taxonomic Code, database (version 8.0) Acquired: 1996 : Notes: Reference for: Ginkgo biloba, maidenhair tree [English] Synonym(s): Salisburia adiantifolia Sm. Ginkgo has been studied extensively in diverse medical conditions. Pharmacokinetic testing of ginkgo doseforms, including capsules, drops, and tablets, has been conducted. Shopping Tips Gingko leaves are not traditionally used to improve memory and have not been studied for their ability to improve memory. Ginkgo pollen can be strongly allergenic. Its leaves and seeds have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. End result? Bleeding may occur. Because of its blood thining activity it should never be used with aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines and or before or after a surgery. Bleeding may occur. By 1771 Linnaeus finally named the tree Ginkgo Biloba which translates into “silver plume with two lobes.” In 1784, ginkgo was brought over to America to the garden of William Hamilton. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4. Findings from large trials have been pivotal in evaluating the efficacy of G. biloba extracts; however, there is not enough quality evidence to support the use of ginkgo for any indication. Other medicinal constituents of ginkgo include shikimic, vanillic, ascorbic, and p-coumaric acids. This is when the active ingredient – ginkgoflavonglycoside – is at its highest concentration. Occurrence of neurotoxic 4'-O-methylpyridoxine in ginkgo biloba leaves, ginkgo medications and Japanese ginkgo food. Consider therapy modification.Mousa 2010, Spolarich 2007, Stanger 2012, Ulbricht 2008, Vitamin K antagonists: Ginkgo biloba may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of vitamin K antagonists. This class constituted the link between the ferns and the angiosperms (flowering plants). Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. The instant increase in blood to the brain brings instant results-memory improves. Aging does not take a day off, and for this reason, we shouldn’t take a day off from GBE. Type: Broadleaf. The long-term effects of G. biloba extract on sexual function were then assessed in 68 sexually dysfunctional women randomly assigned to 8 weeks of treatment with G. biloba extract 300 mg/day, placebo, sex therapy alone, or sex therapy in combination with G. biloba extract. For site-specific cancers, there were nonsignificant trends towards an increased risk of breast (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 0.97 to 4.8; P=0.06) and colorectal (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.87; P=0.1) cancers, and a reduced risk of prostate cancer (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.17; P=0.18).Biggs 2010, Ginkgo seeds have been reported to induce a toxic syndrome ("Gin-nan" food poisoning). It is one of the oldest trees in the world, dating back to over 200 million years ago. The GEM study (N=3,069 elderly men and women) preplanned an evaluation of cardiovascular outcomes and found no evidence that ginkgo 240 mg/day reduced total or cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular events.Kuller 2010 A statistically significant positive finding was obtained for ginkgo in peripheral vascular disease; however, the number of events was too small to make any generalizations.Kuller 2010 Similarly, ginkgo did not reduce blood pressure in hypertensive or normotensive participants in the GEM study.Brinkley 2010 A 2009 Cochrane meta-analysis of 14 clinical trials evaluating the role of ginkgo in intermittent claudication found no evidence of a clinically important benefit in patients with peripheral arterial disease; the 2013 update reinforced this conclusion.Nicolaï 2009, Nicolai 2013 The American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines for the management of peripheral artery disease (2005/2011) state that the effectiveness of ginkgo in improving walking distance for patients with intermittent claudication is marginal and not well established (level B evidence).Anderson 2013, A Cochrane systematic review of studies to 2005, including 10 trials (N=792) assessing the efficacy of ginkgo, found no convincing evidence to support the use of ginkgo for recovery after stroke or for improvement in neurological deficit at the end of treatment.Zeng 2005, In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N=102), significantly more patients in the ginkgo group achieved a 50% reduction in 4-month poststroke follow-up National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score compared with baseline than those in the placebo group (58.6% vs 18.5%, respectively; P<0.05).Oskouei 2013 In contrast, multivariate regression analysis of the trend of NIHSS scores from admission to follow-up revealed a significant decline in scores for G. biloba when adjusted for age and gender (P<0.05).Oskouei 2013. Broadleaf deciduous tree, a gymnosperm, reaches 50+ ft (15+ m) tall, usually pyramidal, excurrent (dominant main leader), but variable. Rates of discontinuation because of lack of effect were similar between groups; however, more donepezil patients discontinued because of adverse effects.Rapp 2018, A Cochrane meta-analysis (published in 2009 and including 36 trials) found that results lacked consistent evidence of clinically important effects on dementia or cognitive impairment. The species survived in China, where it was cultivated as a sacred tree, and it still decorates Buddhist temples throughout Asia. It is now represented all over the world and is often planted because of its slim crown and the slow-growing with bright yellow fall color in the vicinity of houses. Monitor therapy.Robertson 2008, Nimodipine: CYP3A4 inducers (weak) may decrease the serum concentration of nimodipine. Because of its status in Buddhism and Confucianism, the ginkgo is also widely planted in Korea and in Japan since the 14th century; in both areas, some naturalization has occurred, with ginkgos see… Older men with poor circulation can have a hard time achieving an erection. Additionally, the guidelines state that there is inconsistent evidence supporting the use of ginkgo in the treatment or prevention of Alzheimer disease.Hort 2010 According to a British Association for Psychopharmacology revised (third) consensus statement (2017), until further evidence is available, ginkgo cannot be recommended for either treatment or prevention of Alzheimer disease.O'Brien 2017, The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter for the management of dementia (published in 2001, reaffirmed in 2003) states that some patients with unspecified dementia may benefit from G. biloba; however, evidence-based efficacy data are lacking (practice option recommendation).Doody 2001 The American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry position statement for patients with dementia resulting from Alzheimer disease (2006) does not recommend the general use of ginkgo for Alzheimer disease.Lyketsos 2006 The American Psychiatric Association practice guideline for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer disease and other dementias (2007) does not recommend ginkgo for routine use in treating cognitive and functional loss due to uncertainty regarding safety and efficacy.Rabins 2007, Ginkgo extracts have been studied in clinical trials for conditions including schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, autism, anxiety, and migraine, with varying results.D'Andrea 2009, Donfrancesco 2007, Lovera 2007, Niederhofer 2009, Savage 2018, Woelk 2007, Yancheva 2009, As an antioxidant, ginkgo is of interest in schizophrenia. Patients receiving combination therapy were found to have a significantly higher education level (P=0.01) and lower baseline ADAS-Cog score (P<0.01) compared to those receiving cholinesterase inhibitor therapy alone.Canevelli 2014, In a retrospective study, outcomes were compared in 189 patients 80 years or older with Alzheimer disease who had used either donepezil or standardized G. biloba extract (EGb 761) for 12 months. The Ginkgo tree is the sole surviving species of the family Ginkgoaceae and is the world’s oldest living tree. The first record of Europeans encountering it is in 1690 in Japanese temple gardens, where the tree was seen by the German botanist Engelbert Kaempfer. The dioecious ginkgo is the world's oldest living tree species. And you can choose the growth habit, size, and other characteristics by selecting from among several types of ginkgo tree: Fairmount. Long used primarily by the elderly, GBE’s use in now extended to young people suffering from poor memory. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). Standardized ginkgo leaf extracts have been used in clinical trials for cognitive and cardiovascular disorders at daily doses of 120 to 240 mg. Contraindications have not been established. Disclaimer: The author makes no guarantees as to the the curative effect of any herb or tonic on this website, and no visitor should attempt to use any of the information herein provided as treatment for any illness, weakness, or disease without first consulting a physician or health care provider. However, GBE needs to be used on a daily basis to counteract the effects of the very daily aging process. Although interest exists in chemotherapeutic applications, safety concerns persist. These include flavonoids and several terpene trilactones unique to ginkgo (ginkgolides and bilobalide). Contact with the fleshy fruit pulp may cause allergic dermatitis similar to that caused by poison ivy. A recent study indicates that it can be used by anyone needing to improve their memory and this included a student cramming for an exam. The name Ginkgo comes from the Japanese words gin, “silver”, and kyo , “apricot” and refers to its silvery apricot like fruit. It might cause early labor or extra bleeding during delivery if used near that time. It has long been revered as a sacred tree in both China and Japan and has featured for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine. Ginkgo was once very common in Northern America and parts of Europe, but after the Ice Age only survived in China. Botanical name: Ginkgo biloba: Family: Ginkgoaceae belong to the class of the Ginkgophytes. Evidence is lacking to support a protective role in cardiovascular conditions and stroke. Bleeding may occur. Concerns persist regarding the safety of ginkgo leaf extract, based on studies in rodents that suggested increased mitosis and proliferation of tumor cells, as well as the large Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study in which the potential for an increased risk of certain cancers was noted. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product. In one study, GBE reduced headaches in 80% of the people who took it, most of whom were having migraines regularly. Consider therapy modification.Mousa 2010, Spolarich 2007, Stanger 2012, Ulbricht 2008, Clozapine: CYP3A4 inducers (weak) may decrease the serum concentration of clozapine. It may also block inflammation and allergic responses, which can contribute to headaches. Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Monitor therapy.Nimodipine 2015, Tartara 1991, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Ginkgo's place in therapy for dementia seems limited, and a role in schizophrenia has not been established. Ginkgo is probably one of the most resistant trees to environmental pollution, insects and disease. Consider therapy modification.Mousa 2010, Spolarich 2007, Stanger 2012, Ulbricht 2008, Anticoagulants: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of anticoagulants. Indeed, evidence suggests that GBE has the ability to boost brain function on a number of physiological levels. Avoid products containing Gingko leaves. A standardized extract containing 24% ginkgoflavanglycosides and 6% terpene lactones (ginkgolides and similar compounds) should be used daily taken three times a day. Herbalists call GBE the perfect remedy for aging because it strengthens organs that can degenerate with age: the eyes, brain, and the blood vessels. Ginkgo should be used with caution during pregnancy, particularly around labor due to risk of prolonged bleeding time, and should be avoided during lactation. Ginkgolic acid and related alkylphenols from the lipid fraction of the fruit pods have been reviewed. Czech: Jinan dvoulalocný, Ginkgo biloba. Oddly enough, this ancient tree thrives well in polluted environments, like large cities and roadsides. Genus: Ginkgo. Ginkgo biloba, commonly called the ginkgo tree. The flavonoids act as free radical scavengers, and the terpenes (ginkgolides) inhibit platelet-activating factor. The name Ginkgo comes from the Japanese words gin, “silver”, and kyo, “apricot” and refers to its silvery apricot like fruit. This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. Laboratory research indicates that through this process GBE sends more blood to the brain and to the body’s extremities. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. Roasted ginkgo seeds were consumed in ancient China and Japan and were considered a digestive aid and preventive agent for drunkenness. Ginkgo biloba is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 9 m (29ft) at a slow rate. Ginkgo taken orally may be unsafe during pregnancy. VIDEO Created by Elizabeth Meyer for " Trees, Shrubs and Conifers " a plant identification … Ginkgo biloba is a large, deciduous tree that matures to 100' tall and is considered to be a living fossil. Ginkgo biloba is an herb used to treat altitude sickness (prevention), cerebral vascular insufficiency, cognitive disorders, dementia, dizziness/vertigo, intermittent claudication, macular degeneration/glaucoma, memory loss, premenstrual syndrome, SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction, and as a vasodilator.. Documented increases in cerebral blood flow (greater effect in patients 50 years and … Common name: Ginkgo . Ginkgo needs to be taken for a minimum of 3 months to experience major benefits, and can be taken long term if necessary. Ginkgo's place in therapy for dementia seems limited, and a role in schizophrenia has not been established. It has been traced back more than 200 million years to fossils of the Permian geologic period and is the sole survivor of the family Ginkgoaceae. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. The GEM study found no effect of ginkgo in reducing the incidence of dementia or in preventing decline in cognitive impairment among enrolled older adult participants with normal to mild cognitive impairment.DeKosky 2008, Snitz 2009 Similarly, in the GuidAge study, long-term use of standardized ginkgo extract had no effect on the risk of progression to Alzheimer disease compared with placebo.Vellas 2012, In the Impact of Cholinergic Treatment Use (ICTUS) study (N=828), 96.5% of patients received cholinesterase inhibitor therapy alone and 3.5% received ginkgo in combination with cholinesterase inhibitors. Ginkgo preparations have been published: the GEM study ( N=2,854 ) personal circumstances taking much... 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